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 The fundamental gravitino and its physical dark world

Chapter 4

The physical properties of the dark matter FG in the universe space

4.1 The four central points of the FG theory and evidence

1. The light matter with its composed particles FG fills all the universal space and permeates into micro-world

Fist of all, I must point out that this central point is not a hypothesis, but a fact that has been verified by the astrophysics and the elementary particle physics, especially by the discovery of dark matter.

According the contents of chapters 1 and 2 dark matter, which actually is a kind of light matter, and is composed of the original gravitational particle, we call it the FG. The further qualitative and quantitative verifying refers to the chapters 1, 3, 4, and 5.

In the chapter 2 the following evidence already mentioned:

Evidence 1.  Microwave radiation

Evidence 2. Exchanging photons between the elementary particles.

2. The light matter FG possesses the character of the universal gravitational force.

The verification about the existence of ¡°dark matter¡±, and the fact that the light deflects in the gravitational field has already proved this central point.

3. All of the elementary particles consist of light matter FG.

 Evidence 1. The annihilation of elementary particles: the particle and its antiparticle can annihilate into light energy. 

 Evidence 2. The absorption and / or emission of light energy inevitably accompany all interactions between elementary particles.

It is worthwhile to emphasize the fact that the absorption and / or emission of light energy inevitably accompany all interactions between elementary particles. This fact is a satisfactory and necessary condition for central point 3 to be valid. This is the most fundamental fact, and is similar to the fact that all substances consist of molecules, and all molecules consist of atoms. They are a complete analogy.

In fact there is much experimental data that can verify the above three central points sufficiently to accept as proven. I will just quote two examples to demonstrate this.

 Evidence 3. All kind of matter commonly possesses a gravitational force.

Evidence 4. Physics has already verified that the total energy of matter is:


Furthermore, this energy formula of matter adapts all kind of objects such as atoms, molecules, the earth, the galaxy and so on are all composed of light matter.


4. This light matter, i.e. the dark matter in the universe constructs ¡°velocity ether¡±

Actually, this central point is a direct consequence from the first three main points. The name ¡°velocity ether¡± comes from the famous physicist P.A.M.Dirac, who has suggested in his research work that there must exist something like ether. The main property of which is ¡°velocity ether¡±. Regretfully, in the past several years physicists deemed that light was not matter, but pure energy. It would be a particle without mass. However the facts shows that light matter possesses gravitational interaction, fills up all universal space and seeps into the micro-world. We know that the strength of gravitational interaction is too weak to bind particles to form a bigger particle and gravitational interaction between FGs is a kind of long-range interaction. While in the short range it must induce some elastic repulsive force so that light matter in the universal space possesses all properties that ether must possess. Moreover, it inevitably interacts with micro as well as macro substances. The average velocity of light matter is light velocity c. Therefore, the name velocity ether matches reality.

4.2 FG theory and classical ¡°ether¡± hypothesis

At this point I must take the trouble to elaborate the essential difference between FG theory and classical ether hypothesis. At first sight, due to the failures in the classical ¡°ether¡± hypothesis, some would assert that my theory is following along the same line. But as will be seen later, it is not so simple.

It is well known, the classical ¡°ether¡± hypothesis is founded on a subjective basis. It assumed that there was an absolute static ¡°ether¡±, which filled up all of the space in the universe and, even permeated the micro-world. It must therefore be a carrier for propagated motion and its shear coefficient must be 1000 times greater than that of irons shear coefficient. At the end of 19th century many experiments were designed to test the velocity of ether with respect to other matter. The Michelson¡¯s experiment on the ether drag effect is a famous one. But no interference pattern was detected in this experiment.

In contrast to the classical ether theory, the ¡°velocity ether¡± of light matter is not a subjective hypothesis. Its existence has been confirmed by all of the experiments on microwave background radiation and elementary particle. In my theory the ¡°velocity ether¡± is not static. The part of the ¡°velocity ether¡± can be in different motions due to the interaction of a gravitational field. For example, the gravitational field of the earth can drag the air above it, and in inner space between the air molecules there is certain light matter emitted from air molecules which is also the medium of light propagation and it has the same moving component with the air structure. It seems like the air in turn can drag "the light matter ether". In this respect the Michelson¡¯s experiment is nothing but powerful evidence for the FG theory. Refer to Chapter 4: Michelson did not test the results of interference fringes, it is proved that the propagation of light is by a kind of "material medium", that is with the movement of the earth.

After studying some math-physical models provided in the following text (Refer to the chapter 8 STABLE ELEMENTAL PARTICLE ¨C a math- physical model of "Basic body of particles"), readers could see more clearly and directly the mechanism of how the atmosphere drags "the light matter ether".

 Another important reason, according to physicists who have negated the classical ¡°ether¡± hypothesis, is the shear coefficient that must be 1000 times greater than that of iron. What is the shear coefficient that the light matter ether possesses in the FG theory? As the ¡°light matter¡± possesses universal gravitational nature, it is a long-range interaction, whose average velocity is light velocity c. Therefore it is self-evident for light matter to have this peculiar shear coefficient. In fact, the light matter is a perfect medium for propagating event information.

For comparison, we have written down some properties of both classical ¡°ether¡± and light matter FG ether¡± in table 4-1 

                                                                                                                               Table 4.1 

Name of ether


Property of existence

Property of motion

Shear coefficient

Classical ether

Subjective hypothesis

Absolute rest

Can¡¯t be greater than

1000 times of iron¡¯s

Light matter

FG ether

Fills whole universe; permeates in micro world

Gravitational interaction; relative motion

Propagating light state

4.3 The photon quanta and the light matter FG

There exists a state of original particle of light matter but it is not the photon quantum h¦Í. I call it FG as mentioned in this paper. The light matter FG possesses a gravitational character. In chapter 5 I have worked out its theoretical mass order that is 3.6 x 10-42 g and perfectly agrees with the experimental value. Obviously the FG fills up all space in the universe and permeates into the micro world between elementary particles.

According to the description of FG theory the photon quantum is a phenomenon of wave-particle interference in the space filled with light matter FG. It is a kind of standing wave in mathematical form. Certainly it has been confirmed by the discovery of ¡°dark matter¡±. The nature of photon quantum h¦Í (¦Í can get the value from 0 to infinite) has been described as the character of the standing wave, it means that no actual particle state of photon exist in the space of light propagation and it is a certain quantity of FG that the object system emits or absorbs when it is stimulated. The character of FG determines the value of h and the relations of ¡°Schrödinger¡± equation of the object system determine the value of ¦Í. Further more we know the theory of matter wave has been verified, and is revealed in the math form of h¦Í can characterize all matter or objects. So the wave-particle duality proves that the light propagation depends on some medium not as the relativists exert that light propagates in a vacuum without any medium or carrier and it is pure energy.

4.4 The basic characteristics of the FG in space

According to the knowledge of today¡¯s physics, we can give the basic characteristics of the FG in space:

a. Gravity is the basic property of the FG, but the direct gravitational force between particles is too weak to aggregate to larger particles. FG falls within the scope of elastic particles. When close to each other over a certain distance it shows repulsion, which is the cosmic repulsion mechanism that currently the physicists found.

b. The gravitational superposition arising from the ¡°FG¡± all over the universe results in the gravitino pressure in space. The calculation shows that the gravitino pressure is consistent with the intensity of the strong interaction and also shows that the elementary particles are the ¡°droplets¡± under the strong gravitino pressure in the entire universe, similar to the droplets in the saturated gas. There are steady-state solutions in Mathematical models corresponding to the proton, the electron and the neutron.

c. The average speed of the ¡°FG¡± is at the same magnitude as the speed of light.

d. The "stickiness" of FG in space is extremely small, but under the strong cosmic gravitino pressure the ¡°dark matter¡± is with a strong field action effect.

e. The ¡°FG¡± in the universe has the extremely low mass density at the magnitude of 10-28G/cm3. As media matter it plays a very small role in the non-high-speed state of moving objects; however, it has the extremely high amount density ¨C the surface of a sphere with the diameter of 1 Angstrom is hit by the FGs in the space at the magnitude of 108-14 times per second.

f. The FG has much stronger permeability than a neutrino.