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 The fundamental gravitino and its physical dark world

 Chapter 5

An interference phenomenon between a medium wave and pulsing particles with math form of standing wave

 5.1 The nature of light

Thinking the dark matter as a medium for light propagation we can get a classical math form of a standing wave, i.e. the light ray is a simple phenomenon of interference between a medium wave and pulsing particles.

The raising of central points in the FG theory is because of that ample physical evidences is founded, not by subjective hypothesis. It is especially distinct from Einstein¡¯s relativity. As is well known the assuming premises of the theory of relativity is the Instantaneous Principle and Light Speed Constancy but has no mentioned about the mechanism of light propagation.

The four central points of the FG theory have provided some basic conditions for revealing the mechanism of light ray propagating in free space, as well as some descriptions on moving states of light.

Assuming a light source is stimulated to emit a pulse of light matter FG, which enters the surrounding FG media to induce a media wave. The frequency of the wave is related and corresponds to the energy and speed of the FG particle pulse. Furthermore, the wave inevitably reacts on the light source and constrains the stimulation by its frequency. Consequently the pulse will vary with a change in the frequency. In the wave theory there is a sufficient mature mathematical approach to deal with this problem. This is a typical standing wave problem, i.e. the superposition between both the FG pulse from the light source and the FG media wave will produce interference to form a standing wave. These motion properties determine the particular phenomena that the energy of the optical wave is discrete; it possesses the properties of the wave. At the same time it also possesses some particle properties, For instance, the property of impulse, light pressure etc.

I must also point out that we usually measure the energy emitted by some light source excluding all the mass-energy of the medium itself. So that is why astrophysicists get the photo-metric mass excluding the medium mass in all space i.e. those photo-metrical principles used to measure the universal mass before are not correct, not because the medium is dark or light, invisible or visible. So I prefer to call it, as Light matter FG not the Dark matter.

The most significant experiment for verifying the above mechanism is the experiment on ¡°photo-electric effect¡±.  

5.2 A powerful supporting experiment to ¡°FG¡± theory - the ¡°photoelectric effect¡±

The experiment on ¡°photo-electric effect¡± is introduced in some senior school textbooks. When an electron gets the irradiation of a light beam it will escape from the cathode. There is a threshold of the frequency to the light beam, namely the infrared limit. When the frequency of the light beam is larger than the infrared limit, the escaping electrons can be detected, no matter how small the irradiation intensity is. On the other hand, no electron can be detected if the frequency is less than the threshold, no matter how large the intensity of the irradiation is (or named flux of the light). It is commonly accepted that the frequency of light determines the energy a light ray possesses but not its amplitude.

In the following I would like adopt the principle of ¡°FG theory¡± to discuss the ¡°photo-electron effect¡±. An electron oscillating in the cathode tends to escape from the cathode and is attracted by this cathode at the same time. During the period of oscillation, if the motion of the electron is subjected to an action of the light pulse, when the frequency of the light pulse is large enough during the period of oscillation the electron can absorb enough FG to increase the energy to escape the cathode. Therefore, the escaping time is neither ¡°comparably longer to accumulate as is requested by the wave theory, nor ¡°needs almost no time¡± statistically as is described in the elastic collision theory. There is a fixed, but very short time interval for the electron to escape from the cathode. It is not incidental, that the experimental data is perfectly in agreement with the theoretical mechanism. As for the duality of the light and other experiments, under the concept of ¡°FG¡± theory they are very easy to explain and understand this being, so I am not going to dwell on them. In the following chapter I would like to discuss the relationship between the FG theory and essential mechanism of strong interaction.

5.3 A simulation experiment of the light propagation - For the interference phenomenon between a medium wave and pulsing particles with math form of standing wave

In fact, the wave particle duality model of light propagation can be simulated in the following experiment:

A specially-designed high-frequency molecular beam shot "gun" projects the air molecules in "ultrasonic" frequency to air-filled space. All the wave-particle duality features can be observed in this experiment; we can check its linear spreading, radial "wave pressure" (equivalent to light pressure), interference and diffraction¡­¡­. The model also reveals that the wave-particle duality will be quite obvious so long as the difference between the radiation beam particle flow of source and "FG" mass-energy is within a certain range. The heavy particle beam that has greater particle mass-energy than the FG has is mainly characterized by particles. This conforms to the facts. This model also gives a rational explanation to the plane of polarization of light, photoelectric effect and other experiments.

Above, the macroscopic simulation experiment designed by the FG theory for simulation of light propagation actually has been carried out and perfect interpretation was made by tailpipe Mach point that with three times the speed of sound emitted by the long-range strategic reconnaissance SR-71 [32] that produced by American Lockheed.