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 The fundamental gravitino and its physical dark world

Chapter 9


9.1 The principle for calculating the FG mass; and the numerical relation of FG mass and the universe mass

      We believe, when two B bodies get close each other to a critical scale, a repulsive elastic force will be produced. If the mass in the elastic radius is defined as the mass of the B body and let np(ne) be quantum number of full filled (space like) orbit B body, we have

        r p =  rBp =  r1 np2 ;    rBe = r1 ne2                 (9.1-1)

Where rBp and rBe is the radius of core of proton and electron respectively; rp is acting radius of charge of proton. From equation (8.2), when the main quantum number large enough, the number of orbital FG of B body can be calculated by the following formula:

                                             (       9.1-2)

      Because of sharp decrease of the force field, a reasonable approximation is 2n3 /3. Therefore we get



      Where M p and Me is the mass of proton and electron respectively. Considering






  We get



                        Mu =1053kg                                  (9.1-7)




                       mF = 3.636 x 10-45 kg                    (9.1-8)


    From the argument about the Basic body of particles above mentioned, this B body can be summarize as following.

The scale of mass of the stable B body in the universe is unique.

There is FG cloud surrounding the B body, which is governed by the quantum mechanical relation. But, the degeneration of orbit induced by the gravitational force of orbital FG so that comes into the collapse of the FG cloud. I.e. the interval of level decrease and the number of orbit increase. A lot of orbit are constrained a very thin layer outside of B body with a large main quantum number.

In equation (9.1-2) the B body with surrounding FG cloud assure that there exist three Stable states in the universe.

1. The fulfilled orbital state

2. The space like state (the B body as a Core oscillates violently, and the surrounding FG cloud disappears).

3. The coupled state, i.e. Two B body shares a common FG orbital cloud.    

The three stable states correspond to the three stable elementary particles, namely proton, electron and neutron; they are most stables one.

    The four properties of the B body provide a method to estimate the mass of the FG original particle. It is an approximate method for the order evaluation. In the following we are going to introduce the principle of the calculation.

    As is well known, the mass of proton, electron has been measured correctly in physics. They correspond to the fulfilled orbit and space- like Orbit State of the B body. It follows that the difference of mass between a proton and an electron is determined by the mass of the orbital FG cloud in a proton because they have same internal core of the B body. So I can estimate the number of FG original particle by the following method.

    The FG cloud outside the B body gives raise to the degeneration and even the collapse of the energy level by gravitational interaction. Therefore the relation of the FG orbital radius r and the main quantum number are equivalent to the relation in the atom model. The Pauli exclusive principle is obviously suitable, because all of the characters of the FG is obtained under the assumption that the Pauli exclusive principle is suitable. Therefore the quantum mechanics provides the method for calculating the relation between the number and main quantum number of the FG in the FG cloud directly. (In calculation we keep only the first order and ignored the term that is comparable with the lost part induced by the slight oscillation of B body)

    In addition the number density of protons is comparable with that of electron. Although electron is a state of space-like orbit, there is still a very thin layer of FG cloud. In the calculation of the integrating value includes the region between the shell and the first orbit. Therefore we can use the mass ratio of proton and electron to replace the cubic ratio of their radius without any error.

    According to the above-mentioned principle after appropriate mathematical treatment we can obtain the mass of FG:


                 mF  =3.63 6 10-45 kg.


9.2 The experimental test and the verification of the theoretical mass of FG D observation on the double star and pulsar

      When we review the experimental data recorded in file, there are at least two of them that have verified the theoretical value of the FG mass. The first was an observation in 1960 by De Brogue on the Binary star another was in 1969 by Feinberg on the pulsar. They have found that the rest mass of a photon is about 0.8 ´ 10-39 kg and 10-44 kg. The average value of them is about 10-42 kg. It is completely consist with my theoretical value.

    I attach the details about verifying and calculation of two observations as follows:


 (1) The rest mass of photon

      For a long time physicists are attempt to use various electromagnetic phenomena to examine the validity of the Maxwell theory of the electromagnetism and check whether the rest mass of photon is zero. These experiments check also the principle of the constancy of the speed of light. So far the examinations are based on the massive electromagnetic theory (Proca equation). Assuming the Lorentz transformation valid, and giving up the phase angle gauge (U (1) gauge) invariant, with a extra term added to represent the rest mass of photon, this is a modified Maxwell equation namely Proca equation. In this case the constant in Lorentz transformation does not represent the speed of light in common sense, but is a universal constant with dimension of speed. In the following we will see that it is a limited speed of photon. In other words, when the frequency (or energy) of photon tends to infinity, its speed tends to constant c. In such a theory the invariant principle has been violated. We would like to introduce the Proca equation for electromagnetic field. Then we will predict some effects of rest mass of photon based on the Proca equation and exam it with experiments. Unfortunately, so far non-of the processed experiments show positive effect of rest mass of photon . Only providing an upper limit on (Goldhaber and Nieto have reviewed it in more detail)

      In the following, wed like to briefly introduce the Proca equation. As is well known, that in the Lagrangian formula of the Maxwell theory of electromagnetic field, the Lagrangian density of the field is a bilinear type and invariant (scalar) under Lorentz transformation and phase (U(1) gauge) transformation, consisting of field variable A (potential function) and its first order derivative ∂A / ∂x . From the Lagrangian through a variation procedure we get the Maxwell equation. For giving up the U(1) gauge invariant, we add a mass term 2ArA to the Lagrangian. From the modified Lagrangian we get Proca equation, which is a massive electromagnetic field equation. In Gauussian unit is






 Which satisfies



      The Greek alphabets run from 1 to 4.  ˦ͦѦ are a unit complete anti-symmetry tensor.

    Is vector potential, f is scalar potential, J is current density, r is charge density.

      The four dimensional current density Jv is conserved, satisfy conserved equation   

                                          (9.3 -4)

      Differentials equation (9.3-1), and using equation (9.3 -2) and (9.3-4) we get


      It implies the charge conserved condition (9.3-2) and Lorentz condition (9.3-5) are equivalent to each other.

      Put (9.3-2) into (9.3-1) and using (9.3-5) we obtain the wave equation of electromagnetic potential A



      Where    ( Alembertian). The equation determines the electromagnetic potential A uniquely.

      The three dimensional form of (9.3-1) ~ (9.3-6) are






















      Obviously, when = 0, the Proca equation is reduced to the Maxwell equation.

      Proca first suggested the equation in 30s this century. It is a uniquely generalized Maxwell equation (remaining invariant under Lorentz transformation). Equations (9.2-7) ~ (9.2-11) are the foundation for examining the rest mass of photon by experiments. We would like to introduce further in the following.


(2) The dispersion effect of the light speed in a vacuum

The most direct consequence of the massive electromagnetic theory is the dispersion effect of light speed, due to the massive photon (̡ 0) in a vacuum. The free plane wave solution of equation (9.2-6) in a vacuum (absent charge and current) is

    A  ~ exp{i(kr C t)}                               (9.2-2.1)

Where wave vector k ( |k|   2 ⁄ , is wave length), angular frequency and mass satisfy

   k2  -  2  ⁄ C =  - 2                               (9.2-2.2)

This is the dispersion relation of an electromagnetic wave in vacuum. The phase speed of a free electromagnetic wave is

    = ⁄ |k| = c (1 - 2 c2 ⁄ C1/2                 (9.2-2.3)


The group speed is defined as

  v = d ⁄ d |k|   =  c (1 -  2 c2 ⁄ C1/2   (9.2-2.4)

Because the mass of photon is a finite constant, when ء the phase speed and group speed tend to a constant c. i.e. the constant c in Proca equation is a speed of free electromagnetic wave with its frequency tending to infinity.

From equation (9.2-2.1) and (9.2-2.2) we can see, when = c, k = 0 the free electromagnetic wave does not propagating. Otherwise when < c, k2 < 0, k is an imaginary number, there appears an exponential damping phase factor exp{- |k| r}. In this case the amplitude of the wave will exponential dumping. Only when › c, the wave may propagate free of damping. The phase speed and group speed is given by equations of (9.2-2.3) and (9.2-2.4) respectively.

The equation (9.2-2.4) implies that the propagating speed of electromagnetic wave with different frequency is different, which is called the dispersion. This phenomenon provides a possibility to determine the rest mass of photon (measure the speed of light signal with different frequency, or measure the time difference between light signals with different frequency, traveling through the same distance)

Consider two series of electromagnetic waves with different angular frequency 1, 2, assuming 1,2 > c. In this case the speed difference of the waves is given by (9.2-2.4)



      In last equation the ( 2  / 2) 2 and smaller term have been ignored. In the same approximation, from (9.2-2.2) we get




Using (9.2-2.6) the ∆v can be expressed in term of wavelength




      If the wave series travel through same distance L the time difference of them will be


      Equations (9.2-2.5)~(9.2-2.8) is the start point for using the dispersion effect to determine the rest mass of photon.


(3).       The time difference of the light of star reaching the earth

      Equation (9.2-2.8) shown ∆t is proportion to L, as the distance longer the effect will be larger. We can use the time difference ∆t resulting from the light with different frequency travel through the same distance to determine the rest mass of photon . We can measure the time difference of electromagnetic waves emitted from a distant star with different frequency when they reach the earth. For example by using the binary or pulsar we can process such observation.

It is worth to emphasizing that the dispersion effect of light of a star could be explained as an effect of rest mass as well as the non-linear effect of the electromagnetic field or plasma effect. In the universe space between the star and the earth there exists very dilute universe medium (plasma). The dispersion due to the plasma is quite similar to that of the rest mass of photon. This is a main obstacle to using the dispersion effect to determine the rest mass of photon. Now we would like to introduce briefly the dispersion effect of electromagnetic wave in plasma.

      In general the dispersion equation of electromagnetic wave in plasma is



      Where n is the number density of electron in the plasma, m the rest mass of electron, B the magnetic induction field, : the angle between k and B. In inter galaxy space the magnetic field is very weak  can be ignored. Therefore equation (X.2-3.2) gives the dispersion effect of electromagnetic field in plasma.

    Vg = d ⁄ d |k|  = c (1 C  2 ⁄ ) ½   (9.2-3.2)


Comparing (9.2-3.2) with (9.2-2.4) we can see that the form of dispersion effect due to the characteristic frequency of plasma is the same as that due to the rest mass of photon. We could not distinguish them if no other method can be used to acquire knowledge of the density of intergalactic plasma. This prevents us from using freely the dispersion effect of starlight to determine the rest mass of photon .


(a) The binary observation

      In 1940 de Brogue suggested a method to determine the rest mass of photon by using the binary system. The binary consists of two stars (for instance named S1, S2), which rotates in an elliptical orbit. At some time the star S1 blocks the star S2 that we cannot see at that time. In a moment S2 reappears from behind S1. We can measure the time difference for the optical wave, which emitted from star S2 with different frequency, to reach the earth. The data observed by de Brogue is 22 C 12  0.5x10-8 cm2. The distance between the binary and the earth is L ~ 103 ly. The time difference of two light waves with different color is ∆t 10-3. If the contribution from the rest mass of photon cannot be ignored, from equation (6-2-2.8) we obtain


(b) The observation of pulsar

      The discovery of the pulsar provides a new method to examine the rest mass of photon. Although the dispersion effect of the two series of light waves in a pulse emitted from a pulsar is very small, but the distance between the pulsar and the earth is so long that the time difference is big enough to be observed. The dispersion effect of the radio wave emitted from a pulsar is generally expressed in terms of effective average number density of electron.   For the pulsar NP0532 Staelin and et. Al.(1968) give    2.8   10-2  cm-3

      Feinbertg(1 969) assumed the observed dispersion effect of the pulsar NPO532 was mainly caused by the rest mass of photon. In this situation comparing (9.2-2.4) and (9.2-3.2) we get  / c = 4 e2 /mc. The dispersion effect caused by the electron in the plasma is the same as that cause by the rest mass of photon. Therefore we obtain:


    Feinberg suggests this is a complement to the Schrodingers static field method. It is worth to note that the quoted experimental data were accepted by the physical society. The reason was that at that time, the physics was constrained by the limited level of development. The observed time difference between the light wave with different frequencies, which arrives the earth at different time, and the dispersion effect of pulsar NPO 532 had been attributed mainly from the rest mass of photon hypothetically. At present, the astrophysics has verified that the mass of the cosmic dust plus the mass of all of the baryon hold only 5% of dark matter in the cosmic space. Actually, we have verified, that the 95% of the dark matter indeed is the FG light matter. In this respect, the mentioned experiments have been significant to verify our assertion sufficiently.