**
The
fundamental gravitino and its physical dark world**

**
12.1 Major experimental laws in the physical theory on light, electricity, and
magnetism.**

The theory of electromagnetism has been based on Coulomb¡¯s, Biot, Savart and Ampere¡¯s laws. Even Maxwellian theory is based on the unified form of these laws. The breakthrough in quantum mechanics that characterises the energy term and quantisation character is only developing as a method to describe electromagnetic properties. As to the question of why and how electric charge interacts and what the essential mechanism of interaction is. These experimental laws cannot be answered.

**
12.2 Two different states of B bodies and their effect of interference ¨C the
mechanism of electrical interaction**

As a model of stable ¡°Basic body of particles¡± has been established, the essence of the electric and magnetic interaction has become a simple and obvious dynamic problem.

I have learned from previous research that the state of ¡°Basic body of
particles¡± is a stable system state in the dynamic equilibrium with the cosmic,
through absorbing and emitting FG¡± light matter. The frequency of the radiation
of ¡°B body¡± can be decomposed into two basic components: One is ¦Í_{B},
corresponding to the oscillation of ¡°B body¡± as a center of mass. The other is
¦Í_{F} corresponding
to the frequency of the radiation of ¡°FG cloud¡± outside of the ¡°B body¡±.
Obviously, the frequency of the center of mass is lower than that of the orbital
¡°FG¡±, ¦Í_{F} >>
¦Í_{B}.
According to the different stable states both the proton and electron, the
former emits mainly ¦Í_{F},
named ¡°body with higher frequency¡±; the electron emits ¦Í_{B},
named ¡°body with lower frequency¡±.

It is well known in the phenomenon of resonance that two bodies having the same or nearly the same frequency will resonance. In other words, another body can absorb the oscillation of one body. Conversely, if the frequency of them were very different from each other, the oscillation would weaken. This is a resonate principle.

Let me now discuss a proton set in the space of a neighboring proton (or an electron set in the neighboring space of another electron.)

For any individual proton, the dynamic equilibrium in figure 11.1 (b) is disturbed. The frequencies of ¡°FG standing wave¡±, emitted from both neighboring surface are same. The resonance or convection between two protons will happen. Furthermore the resonance is aggravated with the distance decreasing. The dynamic consequence is to repulse each other. It is not too difficult to use a mathematical approach to derive at this point, because the ¡°repulsive force is proportionate to the inverse square of distance¡±. This is the Coulumb¡¯s repulsive force. The condition for supporting this explanation is that the interaction between ¡°FG original particle¡± and the standing wave is a long-range wave interaction, and the propagating speed is light speed.

Figure 11 ¨C 1(c) shows the situation when bodies with different frequencies and are close each other (proton in neighboring space of electron). A difference situation can be seen from that in the above figure, figure 11.1 (b) shows the radiation from the opposite surfaces will be suppressed because their intrinsic frequency of ¡°FG¡± radiation is distinctly different. For each body, the equilibrium with external space has been broken, and the dynamic effect is to attract each other.

**
12.3 The intrinsic origin of the ¡°quantisation of electric charge.¡±**

At this point, I have shown clearly that both of the proton-like bodies with a higher frequency and electron-like body with a lower frequency are at a state of dynamical equilibrium with the universe, possessing the same ¡°B body¡± at the center of mass. Obviously, the fluxes of the ¡°FG¡± emitted from the basic cores of proton or electron body individually are the same. This is the intrinsic origin of the ¡°quantisation of an ¡°electric charge¡±. Also it is the essential reason why it is not possible to find stable fractional charge. Controversially, the ¡°quantisation of electric charge¡± is powerful evidence to verify this essential mechanism of electric interaction.

Fig.11-1

**
**

**
12.4 The theoretical derivation of electric experimental law**

It is well known that electromagnetic theory is based on experimental laws. These laws, however, reflect only the properties of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic interaction and the mathematical relation of them. This theory never explains the reason for and the essential mechanism of interaction. Coulomb¡¯s law or its quantum version has never explained the attraction between a positive charge and a negative one. Even the quantum theory of exchanging a photon to produce the electric interaction still cannot answer the following question: Why do positive and negative charges attract each other? What is the dynamic mechanism of this attraction? The problem seems very simple, but the law or the energy relation deduced from it has nothing to do with the dynamic mechanism. Physicists have suggested that the electric field is a special substance as well as being a magnetic field. The word ¡°special substance¡± is used to disguise the fact that we still do not understand the essential reason for this interaction. Just as in past years, the scientist use so Call ¡° burning element¡± to explain the fire and flame. But eventually some one found out that the fire was a phenomenon caused by the change of molecule motion. Fire is due to a change of state of motion, not a special substance so call burning element.

**
12.5 The electric quantity and ¡°FG¡± flux**

In this chapter, I have argued that the cardinal stable and charged ¡°Basic body of particles¡± are in fact the well know proton and election, whose cores are identical in mass and radius. They are equilibrium with the whole external system through absorbing and emitting ¡°FG¡± dynamically. Therefore the cardinal stable electric quantity is identical, i.e. The charge is ¡°quantised¡±. There is no fractional charge in nature. In physical terminology, a stable charged particle, the flux of its ¡°FG¡± radiation, and penetrates through a closed spherical surface is constant, i.e. The electric quantity can be expressed by the total flux of ¡°FG¡± radiation. Furthermore, the electric interaction can be expressed by exchanging ¡°FG¡± between neighboring charged particles. (For instance the number of ¡°FG¡± per unit time.)

In general, physics always mathematizes some physical properties. Mathematics has provided a sophisticated method to calculate the flux that penetrates through a close spherical surface. Making use of a curve surface integral, we can derive ¡°Gaussian law¡±. Furthermore, according to the law that states that intensity of the wave interaction is proportional to the inverse square of distance between two charges, and proportional to the quantity of electric charge, we can derive Coulomb¡¯s law. The research for the essence of electric interaction leads to a possibility that the famous three experimental laws can be derived from ¡°FG¡± theory. The method is mature, simple and unquestionably a classical one.