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 The fundamental gravitino and its physical dark world

 Chapter 16


16.1 Basic experimental principles

According to much reliable evidence the FG theory suggested that dark matter exists in universal space as a kind of light matter named FG with gravitational property and having a mass order of 3.6x10-42g. Since it is the real medium of light propagation the photometry mass of the universe surely excludes a gigantic mass of it. The light matter FG is not luminous itself but a basic medium matter of light phenomena; i.e. optical phenomena are moving states of light matter FG in its propagation space. 

    At same time FG theory reveals the fact that all elementary particles are made of light matter FG. It seems like atomization drops in saturated air but its math-physical model has only one basic body with three stable states corresponding to proton, electron and neutron all practically existing. The condition of existence for all stable states is to keep dynamic equilibrium, emitting and absorbing the light matter FG, i.e. inside the structure frame of some objects there is a special light medium with the same moving state. Certainly this condition is different from all explanations before and is supported by the same results of ¡°Michelson experiment¡±, furthermore we can try a experimental design to detect this light matter directly.

    This device is a normal Michelson interferometer. The predicted difference of optical paths K1K2K4 and K1K3K4 will be produced in the space between the rotation bands of devices A and B. It must be fixed in a vacuum room to avoid the aberration from the pulled air by the rotation bands.


16.2 Some concept obstacles that have to be answered

1. The classical ¡°ether¡± hypothesis

. At the first sight, due to the failures in classical ¡°ether¡± hypothesis, some would assert that my theory is only harping on the same string. But as will be seen later, it is not so simple.

    It is well known; classical ¡°ether¡± hypothesis is founded on a subjective basis. It assumed that there was an absolute static ¡°ether¡±, which filled up the universe and even permeated the micro-world. It also assumed that it must be a carrier for propagated motion and its shear coefficient must be 1000 times greater than that of iron shear coefficient. At the end of 19th century many experiment were designed to test the velocity of ether with respect to other matter. The Michelson¡¯s experiment on the ether drag effect is a famous one. But no interference pattern was detected in this experiment.

    In contrast to the classical ether theory, the ¡°light matter FG ether¡± is not a subjective hypothesis. Its existence has been confirmed by all of the experiments on microwave background radiation and elementary particles, especially the discovery of dark matter. In FG theory the ¡°light matter FG ether¡± is not static. The part of this ether can be in different motions due to the interaction of gravitational fields and it can also be in the same moving state with its object structure frame because of the reasons mentioned above. In this respect Michelson¡¯s experiment is nothing but powerful evidence for FG theory. Another important reason is the shear coefficient to which physicists have negated the classical ¡°ether¡± hypothesis. It must be 1000 times greater than iron¡¯s shear coefficient. What is the shear coefficient of the light matter ether in FG theory? As ¡°light matter FG¡± possesses universal gravitational nature, it is a long-range interaction, and its average velocity is light velocity c. Therefore; it has peculiar shear coefficient that is certainly greater than 1000 times the shear coefficient of iron.

    For comparison, I have written down some properties of both classical ¡°ether¡± and light matter FG ether¡± in Table 4.1 of chapter 4.  

2. The photon quanta and the FG light matter

    Because the spin number of the photon is ½ it may be questioned and doubted: Could it be possible that elementary particles are made of light matter? For this answer, I have to point out that light matter FG and photon quanta are completely different things like air molecules and sound in the air. The light matter FG is the original particle state of light matter and possesses gravitational character. I have worked out its theoretical level of mass, its order being 3.6 x 10-42g, this perfectly agrees with the experimental value and it has been confirmed by the discovery of ¡°dark matter¡±. Obviously FG fills up all space in the universe and permeates into the micro world between elementary particles. The photon is a kind of phenomena of light matter in a moving state. I have more evidence, the photon quantum is a phenomenon of wave-particle interference in a medium, a kind of interaction between emitted FGs from light source and those FGs as the medium spreads into surrounding space. Its mathematical form is a kind of standing wave. i.e. no practical particle state of photon always exists in the space of light propagation. The nature of the photon quantum h¦Í (¦Í can get the value from 0 to infinite) has been described as the character of wave-particle interference of light matter FG possessing the math form of standing wave. It is a certain quantity of FG that the object system emits or absorbs when the system is stimulated. The character of FG determines the value of h and the relations of ¡°Schrödingers¡± equation of the object system determine the value of ¦Í.

    As is well known there is a verified matter wave theory that reveals all matter or objects can be characterized in the math form of hn i.e. wave-particle duality is general character of all the objects in the universe. 

    According to the explanations of FG theory and the optical properties of crystal and amorphous substance, in the area between devices A and B there would be a certain quantity of light matter FG emitted from the bend matter of structure frames. It is enough to be the medium of light rays with a moving component as the same the bends do. When we observed the predicted aberration from this new Michelson interferometer. It revealed after discussion that we now knew the nature of light much better than before, we will now be able to understand the mechanism of light propagation and more unanswered questions in theoretical physics and astrophysics.

Certainly this experiment was not designed just to judge if the theory of relativity was true or untrue. Relativity is a false truth that has already been proved by reliable and sufficient evidence. I now want to discuss the following questions:

Some scientists think that the universe is a limited one because of many reason, one being that the night on earth is dark. There are two reasons I must take into consideration. The first one is, the dim effect caused by the medium of light propagation, especially after traveling a long universal distance. The second reason is the distribution of space matter. As I cannot use the data of this universe to establish a model of general space matter especially for the unlimited space and time how can one exert another universe is same as our universe? And how is it known what the distance is between two or more universes? There are many reasons that cause the earth to be dark at night.

    Actually there is other evidence that supports this experiments success. At present scientists do not understand how cosmic rays have such high energy needed to achieve traveling the vast distances. ¡°Any particles that have been accelerated to such energies should have interacted with the cosmic microwave background on their long trip to Earth.¡±¡­ Cosmic rays are particles from outer space that continually bombard the Earth. The nature and origin of cosmic rays with energies below 1015 ev are well understood. However, physicists have no idea of the highest energy cosmic rays have contained, some have energy of more than 1020 ev, what is this energy are made of, or how these rays are accelerated. These ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays strike earth only once per km2 every century, and they have only been detected on a handful of occasions. Cosmic rays interact with particles in the Earth¡¯s atmosphere, creating an ¡°air shower¡± of other particles that are eventually detected on the ground. In the FG theory strong interaction has been verified as the macro pressure effect of light matter FG in all universal space. Under this effect stable elementary particles are produced it seems like atomization drops in saturated air. Further more using the normal principle of hydrodynamics we can get the math-physical model easily that mass and energy of a moving particle with the direction respect to a gravity field center increase inevitably. To understanding easily and clearly, you even can get some understanding from the common phenomenon of falling raindrop, its speed increases and the mass of the raindrop increases at the same rate.

Scientists cannot yet understand why the hydrogen atoms are very stable even though the moving electrons at atomic obits emit electromagnetic energy endlessly. Once we get the predicted aberration from this experiment it will mean that we will also get a reasonable answer and new concept to solve the puzzles in atomic structure theory. The stable atomic systems certainly should never lose energy because the obit electrons emit electromagnetic energy, at the same time the whole system of atomic absorbs light matter FG from space to keep the dynamic equilibrium that has been described in FG theory. 

16.3 The practical values of the experiment and its scientific significance

            Of course scientists in the past did not have enough knowledge about ¡°dark matter¡± so in order to explain something they had to assert that light was pure energy and propagates in space without any carrier or medium.

            At that time Einstein lived it was impossible for him to know that any light matter existed in the space. How would light be propagated in the space? Was there any medium or carrier for light? As a scientific explorer he assumed something to explain some light phenomena and believed that light propagates in a vacuum without any medium or carrier and light is pure energy etc. But he finally doubted that his theory might be wrong just before dying, showing his great personality and attitude to seek the truth from facts.

    It can be understood why some physicists were greatly excited by the theory of relativity. Because in a theory in which time and space can be bent by the action of mass, there existed the starting point of time; the starting point of space and the time stopped area. 1.5x1010 years ago, all time and space, as well as the mass-energy of the universe were concentrated on a projectile-like small region. According to General Relativity it may be possible to go back in time or travel into the future. What a fantastic scientific achievement! And what a great discovery! However to confirm something as truth it should be on the basis of reliable experiments and strict logic and not depending on the good wishes and intentions such as children have when playing computer games.

    I can understand why relativists always object to the research of some essential nature such as the mechanism of light propagation and variety interactions. They have objected to this research back to when modern physics started 100 years ago. But it seems that they have spent a 100 years playing a great joke on the world, like a autocrat showing several pieces of beautiful paper in his hand and saying that all the paper in the universe is as beautiful! Of course the mathematics used in the relativity theory is beautiful, but its premises and results are both inconclusive. Is it physics or art and craft!   

    What am I to do now? Certainly it¡¯s not my final aim to fight against the relativity theory. A wrong concept should be recognized and finally given up. I have to make it clear what I believe light matter to be? What the mechanism of light propagation is and what the relationships with dark matter are.